Two representative surveys of general practitioners in 1987 and 1989 showed, that cigarette smoking and high blood pressure are considered the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Elevated blood cholesterol level rank third. Between the two surveys no significant changes took place. The blood cholesterol level is usually measured at a check-up visit or in presence of another risk factor. Routine measurement is not common. At what level do Swiss physicians initiate a therapy? The median range in 1989 for a diet therapy was 6.2-6.7 mmol/l (240-260 mg%) for a 30 years old person, and 6.7-7.2 mmol/l for a 60 years old person. Lipid-lowering drugs are used at about 1 mmol/l (40 mg%) higher levels and there is less agreement between the physicians. Within two years the levels of initiating therapy decreased significantly. Differences between the three Swiss language regions (german/french/italian) in initiating therapy can be seen. 90% of the physicians mentioned compliance problems with a diet therapy. In 1989 half of the surveyed doctors experienced insufficient results in both diet and drug treatment. Further, compliance problems and side effects of drug treatment are mentioned. Half of the physicians reported having tested their own cholesterol level in the last 12 months. Older physicians are considerably more conscious of high cholesterol levels than younger.