This study constitutes the first psychometric examination of the German-language version of the Compensatory Health Belief (CHB) scale to assess the belief that unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in healthy behavior. Data from four different Swiss samples of 1,571 adolescents/students (age range 15 – 55 years), collected between 2007 and 2009, were used. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support either the hypothesized 4-factor structure or a second-order factor structure with a latent overall variable for the German-language CHB scale. These results support the inconsistent patterns of CHBs found across European cultures. Thus, the development of behavior-specific scales might be of advantage. Further recommendations for an improvement of the measurement of compensatory health beliefs are discussed.