BACKGROUND: Renal failure with following continuous renal replacement therapy is a major clinical problem in liver transplant recipients, with reported incidences of 3% to 20%. Little is known about the significance of postoperative acute renal failure or acute-on-chronic renal failure to postoperative outcome in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis we compared the mortality rates of 135 consecutive liver transplant recipients over 6 years in our center subject to their renal baseline conditions and postoperative RRT. We classified the patients into 4 groups, according to their preoperative calculated Cockcroft formula and the incidence of postoperative renal replacement therapy. Data then were analyzed in regard to mortality rates and in addition to pre- and peritransplant risk factors. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in ICU mortality (p=.008), hospital mortality (p=.002) and cumulative survival (p<.0001) between the groups. The highest mortality rate occurred in the group with RRT and normal baseline kidney function (20% ICU mortality, 26.6% hospital mortality and 50% cumulative 1-year mortality, respectively). The hazard ratio in this group was 9.6 (CI 3.2-28.6, p=.0001). CONCLUSION: This study shows that in liver transplant recipient's acute renal failure with postoperative RRT is associated with mortality and the mortality rate is higher than in patients with acute-on-chronic renal failure and postoperative renal replacement therapy.