The dual-effects model of social control states that receiving social control leads to better health behavior, but also enhances distress in the control recipient. Associated findings, however, are inconsistent. In this study we investigated the role of relationship satisfaction as a moderator of associations of received spousal control with health behavior and affect. In a study with five waves of assessment spanning two weeks to one year following radical prostatectomy (RP), N=109 married or cohabiting prostate-cancer patients repeatedly reported on their pelvic-floor exercise (PFE) to control postsurgery urinary incontinence and affect as primary outcomes, on received PFE-specific spousal control, relationship satisfaction, and covariates. Findings from two-level hierarchical linear models with repeated assessments nested in individuals suggested significant interactions of received spousal control with relationship satisfaction predicting patients' concurrent PFE and positive affect. Patients who were happy with their relationships seemed to benefit from spousal control regarding regular PFE postsurgery while patients less satisfied with their relationships did not. In addition, the latter reported lower levels of positive affect when receiving much spousal control. Results indicate the utility of the inclusion of relationship satisfaction as a moderator of the dual-effects model of social control.