Identification of the factors driving extinctions is fundamental to conservation biology. Here, we assessed the likely consequences of extinction of pollinators and dispersers for phylogenetic and functional diversity of savanna woody plant species. Loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater than expected by chance in simulated extinctions of moth- and beetle-pollinated species, and bird- and mammal-dispersed species. In extinction simulations of bee and bat-pollinated species, the loss of functional diversity was greater than expected by chance. Two main features could drive greater loss of biodiversity than expected by chance: loss of clumped species and loss of very unique species. Pollination and dispersal modes must be taken into account in conservation plans or ecological restoration strategies, since communities may be differentially vulnerable to the loss of one of these processes. Both functional and phylogenetic components of biodiversity should be considered, as consequences of extinctions for one are not necessarily the same as for the other.