Fatty acids, the building blocks of biological lipids, are synthesized in plastids and then transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for assimilation into specific lipid classes. The mechanism of fatty acid transport from plastids to the ER has not been identified. Here we report that AtABCA9, an ABC transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, mediates this transport. AtABCA9 was localized to the ER, and atabca9 null mutations reduced seed triacylglycerol (TAG) content by 35% compared with WT. Developing atabca9 seeds incorporated 35% less (14)C-oleoyl-CoA into TAG compared with WT seeds. Furthermore, overexpression of AtABCA9 enhanced TAG deposition by up to 40%. These data strongly support a role for AtABCA9 as a supplier of fatty acid substrates for TAG biosynthesis at the ER during the seed-filling stage. AtABCA9 may be a powerful tool for increasing lipid production in oilseeds.