We explored potential contributing psychological factors in a patient (‘XF’) with focal retrograde amnesia, within the framework proposed by Kopelman (2000). In particular, we investigated the psychological trait of self-enhancement. We constructed a self-report questionnaire measure of self-enhancement and compared XF’s score on this measure with the scores of 61 control participants. XF was found to have a significantly greater level of self-enhancement than the entire control group, and also than a smaller sample of age- and sex-matched controls. We propose that heightened self-enhancement may reflect a premorbid tendency that potentially predisposes individuals to develop retrograde amnesia.