PURPOSE: The coating of implant surfaces with components of the extracellular matrix offers an approach to influence peri-implant bone healing. In this study, bone healing around coated implants is analyzed in a peri-implant defect model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight months after extraction of the premolar teeth, six dogs received 48 implants (eight per animal) in the mandible. Implant surfaces were sandblasted and acid-etched, and some were additionally coated with collagen type II and chondroitin sulfate (collagen/CS). On each side of the mandible, implants either had no peri-implant defect (control side) or a vertical defect of 5 mm in depth and 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mm in width. Implants healed submerged for 8 weeks. Fluorochrome staining, histology, and histomorphometry were used to analyze implant osseointegration.
RESULTS: Fluorochrome labels showed an increased mineralization around collagen/CS-coated surfaces at 4 weeks (p = .031). Histomorphometry generally showed lower vertical and horizontal bone apposition with increasing gap size for both surface types. In gapless sites and 0.5-mm gaps, collagen/CS coated implants showed increased bone volume in areas directly adjacent to the implant, in comparison with uncoated implants (p < .05).
CONCLUSION: The width of the peri-implant gap influences peri-implant bone formation. Complete filling of all gaps by newly formed bone could not be observed around either surface. In proximity to the surface, implant surface coating by collagen/CS positively influenced bone formation.