Glycogen storage disease type II is a rare multi-systemic disorder characterised by an intracellular accumulation of glycogen due a mutation in the acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) gene. The level of residual enzyme activity, the genotype and other yet unknown factors account for the broad variation of the clinical phenotype. The classical infantile form is characterised by severe muscle hypotonia and cardiomyopathy leading to early death. The late-onset form presents as a limb girdle myopathy with or without pulmonary dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) in infants is life saving. In contrast, therapeutic efficacy of rhGAA in the late-onset form is modest. High expenses of rhGAA, on-going infusions and poor pharmacokinetic efficacy raised a discussion of the cost effectiveness of ERT in late-onset Pompe disease in Switzerland. This discussion was triggered by a Swiss federal court ruling which confirmed the reluctance of a health care insurer not to reimburse treatment costs in a 67-year-old female suffering from Pompe disease. As a consequence of this judgement ERT was stopped by all insurance companies in late-onset Pompe patients in Switzerland regardless of their clinical condition. Subsequent negotiations lead to the release of a national guideline of the management of late-onset Pompe disease. Initiation and limitation of ERT is outlined in a national Pompe registry. Reimbursement criteria are defined and individual efficacy of ERT with rhGAA is continuously monitored.