Human milk is the natural creation of a food that contains everything a newborn child needs. Therefore, breast-feeding is regarded as gold standard for the infant‘s nutrition. It is associated with various beneficial effects on the newborn’s health. In breast-fed children, the incidence of allergic and inflammatory conditions is decreased. The question that is intensely investigated but still not fully answered is which components of human milk influence the breast-fed child, so that it develops advantages in growth, health status and immunity over formula-fed children.