Results are reported of a search for a deviation in the jet production cross section from the prediction of perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order. The search is conducted using a 7 TeV proton-proton data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb−1, collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A deviation could arise from interactions characterized by a mass scale Λ too high to be probed directly at the LHC. Such phenomena can be modeled as contact interactions. No evidence of a deviation is found. Using the CLs criterion, lower limits are set on Λ of 9.9 TeV and 14.3 TeV at 95% confidence level for models with destructive and constructive interference, respectively. Limits obtained with a Bayesian method are also reported.