OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare self-reported reasons for cannabis use in patients with schizophrenia with those of matched healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty-six stable outpatients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics and 36 matched controls were included. They completed a questionnaire exploring 15 common reasons for use, established in other studies. results: Overall, patients more frequently agreed with the proposed reasons for use than controls. More specifically, patients with schizophrenia more often stated that they consumed cannabis to fight boredom and to ease social contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Stable schizophrenia outpatients treated with atypicals do not use cannabis in order to reduce side-effects of medication or symptoms of their disorder. Rather, they used cannabis to overcome a feeling of social exclusion. Therefore, enhancing social participation of cannabis-using patients might be an effective strategy for reducing consumption.