Larnygoplasty and concurrent ventriculocordectomy is a common treatment for equine idiopathic left laryngeal hemiplegia. Complications of this procedure are numerous and variable. They occur intraoperatively, immediately post operatively and longer term postoperatively. Hemorrhage, penetration of the larynx mucosa with the prosthesis and needle breakage are potential intraoperative complications. In the immediate postoperative period, dysphagia and coughing due to excessive arytenoid cartilage abduction, sudden loss of abduction, seroma formation, infections and suture fistula formation are among the most common complications. Longer term complications include gradual loss of abduction, chronic coughing and dynamic collapse of the upper airway due to palatal instability, aryepiglottic fold and vocal fold collapse. The benefits of laryngoplasty to improve poor performance and upper airway noise are clearly documented in race horses, sport horses and draught horses and clearly outweigh the complications associated with the procedure, especially if these are diagnosed early and managed appropriately.