PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy of arthroscopic repair of isolated high-grade subscapularis (SSC) tendon lesions by means of clinical follow-up combined with magnetic resonance imaging investigations. METHODS Between January 2008 and September 2010, 11 patients (9 men and 2 women; mean age, 45 ± 10 years) with Lafosse type III or IV traumatic isolated SSC tendon lesions underwent arthroscopic repair including tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon. All patients were preoperatively assessed by clinical examination (Constant-Murley score [CMS]) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance arthrography. At 1 year of follow-up, specific clinical SSC tests, the CMS, and the loss of external rotation were evaluated. A native magnetic resonance investigation was performed to assess the structural integrity of the repair. The SSC muscle was compared with its preoperative condition regarding fatty infiltration and size (cross-sectional area). Patient satisfaction was graded from 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent). RESULTS The mean time interval from trauma to surgery was 3.7 months. A concomitant lesion of the biceps tendon was observed in 10 patients (91%). The mean CMS improved from 44 to 89 points (P < .001). The functional tests showed a significant increase in strength (P < .05) (belly-press test, 4.8 v 2.9; lift-off test, 4.8 v 2.9). The mean loss of external rotation at 0° of abduction was 10° compared with the contralateral side (P < .05). Patient satisfaction was high. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation showed complete structural integrity of the tendon repair in all studies. The SSC showed a significant decrease in fatty infiltration and increase in the cross-sectional area. CONCLUSIONS Arthroscopic repair of higher-grade isolated SSC lesions provides reliable tendon healing accompanied by excellent functional results 1 year after surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level IV, prospective therapeutic case series.