Previous studies of traditional and modern value orientations in individuals found mediated predictive relationships of these values on particular mental disorders. The aim of this study with samples from three countries (Germany, Russia, and China) is to extend findings on mental health (MH) and value orientations to broader MH indicators and two types of mediators, i.e. social support and resilience in accordance to a theory of values and modernization/postmodernization. The multisite study was conducted in the three countries. A path-model with traditional values predicting MH mediated by social support, and modern values predicting MH mediated by resilience was tested in all three countries. As expected, value orientations were for the most part strongest in China, followed by Russia and Germany. Structural equation modeling supported the assumption of mediated prediction of MH by value orientations by and large. The traditional value benevolence predicts social support whereas the modern value self-direction predicts resilience. Value orientations are a sensitive tool to empirically describe cross-cultural differences. The findings indicate that personal value orientations are meaningful predictors of MH. The analysis of personal values shows promise in linking public health, cross-cultural and modernization issues.