We tested the hypothesis that helminth parasite coinfection would intensify viremia and accelerate disease progression in monkeys chronically infected with an R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) encoding a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C envelope. Fifteen rhesus monkeys with stable SHIV-1157ip infection were enrolled into a prospective, randomized trial. These seropositive animals had undetectable viral RNA and no signs of immunodeficiency. Seven animals served as virus-only controls; eight animals were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. From week 5 after parasite exposure onward, coinfected animals shed eggs in their feces, developed eosinophilia, and had significantly higher mRNA expression of the T-helper type 2 cytokine interleukin-4 (P = 0.001) than animals without schistosomiasis. Compared to virus-only controls, viral replication was significantly increased in coinfected monkeys (P = 0.012), and the percentage of their CD4(+) CD29(+) memory cells decreased over time (P = 0.05). Thus, S. mansoni coinfection significantly increased viral replication and induced T-cell subset alterations in monkeys with chronic SHIV clade C infection.