Biodiversity regulates ecosystem functions such as productivity, and experimental studies of species mixtures have revealed selection and complementarity effects driving these responses. However, the impacts of intraspecific genotypic diversity in these studies are unknown, despite it forming a substantial part of the biodiversity. In a glasshouse experiment we constructed plant communities with different levels of barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotype and weed species diversity and assessed their relative biodiversity effects through additive partitioning into selection and complementarity effects. Barley genotype diversity had weak positive effects on aboveground biomass through complementarity effects, whereas weed species diversity increased biomass predominantly through selection effects. When combined, increasing genotype diversity of barley tended to dilute the selection effect of weeds. We interpret these different effects of barley genotype and weed species diversity as the consequence of small vs large trait variation associated with intraspecific barley diversity and interspecific weed diversity, respectively. The different effects of intra- vs interspecific diversity highlight the underestimated and overlooked role of genetic diversity for ecosystem functioning.