The international community has made a substantial effort to create awareness and foster research as well as developing inventories and methodologies to combat global warming. It has come a long way. The review and assessment of the most recent scientific, technical and socioeconomic information by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) amounts to one of the most comprehensive efforts at bridging gaps between scientific research and informed policy making. Equally, the international agenda under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol have enhanced
local and regional efforts at climate change mitigation.
These instruments established a framework for cooperation in climate change mitigation and in facilitating climate change adaptation, in particular in developing countries.
They were based upon the principle of shared but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities of States. The Kyoto Protocol mainly focuses on legally binding commitments of industrialised countries which are historically responsible for enhanced levels of greenhouse
gas emissions. It also provides for a mechanism incentivising developed countries to assist developing countries to reduce their emissions (Clean Development Mechanism, CDM).