A synopsis of all Neotropical species of Cyathea with bipinnate fronds is presented. This artificial group includes 27 species with entire or very shallowly lobed pinnules. The provided key includes together, for the first time, species that had been previously treated in three different genera: Sphaeropteris, Trichipteris, and Cyathea. Full synonymy and geographic distribution is provided for each species. A second-step lectotype is designated for Cyathea marginalis.