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Uniparental Disomy and Genomic Imprinting in Humans


Schinzel, A (1996). Uniparental Disomy and Genomic Imprinting in Humans. Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae, twin research, 45(1-2):145-152.

Abstract

Uniparental disomy (UPD), the inheritance of both homologues from one chromosome from the same parent, was first proposed in 1980 by Erik Engel [1] to be a potential cause of congenital developmental defects in hymans. First hints from the premolecular era towards its existence came from instances where a pericentric inversion was present on one homologue in a parent and on both in one offspring [2] and where there was transmission of an interhomologous Robertsonian translocation (of chromosome 22) from a healthy mother to healthy offspring [3-4]. In mice, UPD was experimentally produced by crossing two mice lines with different Robertsonian translocations both involving the same chromosome [for 2 review see ref. 5].Through this approach, it was possible to define imprinted regions, chromosomes and chromosomal segments for which either maternal or paternal or both types of uniparental disomy led to phenotypic abnormalities. The latter are explained by genomic imprinting, the differential silencing of a gene or genes from one of the parents (the mother or the father) during any stage of embryogenesis or later in life. If, for example, the maternal homologue of a given gene is imprinted (and hence only the paternal allele is active), maternal UPD would lead to loss of the active allele and thus might cause consequences due to loss of function.

Abstract

Uniparental disomy (UPD), the inheritance of both homologues from one chromosome from the same parent, was first proposed in 1980 by Erik Engel [1] to be a potential cause of congenital developmental defects in hymans. First hints from the premolecular era towards its existence came from instances where a pericentric inversion was present on one homologue in a parent and on both in one offspring [2] and where there was transmission of an interhomologous Robertsonian translocation (of chromosome 22) from a healthy mother to healthy offspring [3-4]. In mice, UPD was experimentally produced by crossing two mice lines with different Robertsonian translocations both involving the same chromosome [for 2 review see ref. 5].Through this approach, it was possible to define imprinted regions, chromosomes and chromosomal segments for which either maternal or paternal or both types of uniparental disomy led to phenotypic abnormalities. The latter are explained by genomic imprinting, the differential silencing of a gene or genes from one of the parents (the mother or the father) during any stage of embryogenesis or later in life. If, for example, the maternal homologue of a given gene is imprinted (and hence only the paternal allele is active), maternal UPD would lead to loss of the active allele and thus might cause consequences due to loss of function.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, not_refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:Unspecified
Language:English
Date:1 April 1996
Deposited On:11 Oct 2018 14:43
Last Modified:24 Nov 2018 03:03
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:0001-5660
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1017/s0001566000001239
Related URLs:https://www.swissbib.ch/Search/Results?lookfor=nationallicencecambridge101017S0001566000001239 (Library Catalogue)

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