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eDNA metabarcoding as a new surveillance approach for coastal Arctic biodiversity


Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; Howland, Kimberly; Normandeau, Eric; Grey, Erin K; Archambault, Philippe; Deiner, Kristy; Lodge, David M; Hernandez, Cecilia; Leduc, Noémie; Bernatchez, Louis (2018). eDNA metabarcoding as a new surveillance approach for coastal Arctic biodiversity. Ecology and Evolution, 8(16):7763-7777.

Abstract

Because significant global changes are currently underway in the Arctic, creating a large-scale standardized database for Arctic marine biodiversity is particularly pressing. This study evaluates the potential of aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) meta-barcoding to detect Arctic coastal biodiversity changes and characterizes the local spatio-temporal distribution of eDNA in two locations. We extracted and amplified eDNA using two COI primer pairs from ~80 water samples that were collected across two Canadian Arctic ports, Churchill and Iqaluit based on optimized sampling and preservation methods for remote regions surveys. Results demonstrate that aquatic eDNA surveys have the potential to document large-scale Arctic biodiversity change by providing a rapid overview of coastal metazoan biodiversity, detecting nonindigenous species, and allowing sampling in both open water and under the ice cover by local northern-based communities. We show that DNA sequences of ~50% of known Canadian Arctic species and potential invaders are currently present in public data-bases. A similar proportion of operational taxonomic units was identified at the species level with eDNA metabarcoding, for a total of 181 species identified at both sites. Despite the cold and well-mixed coastal environment, species composition was vertically heterogeneous, in part due to river inflow in the estuarine ecosystem, and differed between the water column and tide pools. Thus, COI-based eDNA metabarcoding may quickly improve large-scale Arctic biomonitoring using eDNA, but we caution that aquatic eDNA sampling needs to be standardized over space and time to accurately evaluate community structure changes.

Abstract

Because significant global changes are currently underway in the Arctic, creating a large-scale standardized database for Arctic marine biodiversity is particularly pressing. This study evaluates the potential of aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) meta-barcoding to detect Arctic coastal biodiversity changes and characterizes the local spatio-temporal distribution of eDNA in two locations. We extracted and amplified eDNA using two COI primer pairs from ~80 water samples that were collected across two Canadian Arctic ports, Churchill and Iqaluit based on optimized sampling and preservation methods for remote regions surveys. Results demonstrate that aquatic eDNA surveys have the potential to document large-scale Arctic biodiversity change by providing a rapid overview of coastal metazoan biodiversity, detecting nonindigenous species, and allowing sampling in both open water and under the ice cover by local northern-based communities. We show that DNA sequences of ~50% of known Canadian Arctic species and potential invaders are currently present in public data-bases. A similar proportion of operational taxonomic units was identified at the species level with eDNA metabarcoding, for a total of 181 species identified at both sites. Despite the cold and well-mixed coastal environment, species composition was vertically heterogeneous, in part due to river inflow in the estuarine ecosystem, and differed between the water column and tide pools. Thus, COI-based eDNA metabarcoding may quickly improve large-scale Arctic biomonitoring using eDNA, but we caution that aquatic eDNA sampling needs to be standardized over space and time to accurately evaluate community structure changes.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Physical Sciences > Ecology
Physical Sciences > Nature and Landscape Conservation
Uncontrolled Keywords:arctic, coastal biodiversity, eDNA metabarcoding, global changes, invasion, spatio-temporal distribution
Language:English
Date:16 August 2018
Deposited On:04 Oct 2018 07:24
Last Modified:22 Jun 2020 20:52
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2045-7758
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4213
Project Information:
  • : FunderArcticNet
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderPOLAR knowledge
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderNunavut Wildlife Management Board
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderFisheries and Oceans Canada Aquatic Invasive Species Monitoring Program
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title

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