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Genotype-phenotype spectrum in isolated and syndromic nanophthalmos


Abstract

PURPOSE

To (i) describe a series of patients with isolated or syndromic nanophthalmos with the underlying genetic causes, including novel pathogenic variants and their functional characterization and (ii) to study the association of retinal dystrophy in patients with MFRP variants, based on a detailed literature review of genotype-phenotype correlations.

METHODS

Patients with nanophthalmos and available family members received a comprehensive ophthalmological examination. Genetic analysis was based on whole-exome sequencing and variant calling in core genes including MFRP, BEST1, TMEM98, PRSS56, CRB1, GJA1, C1QTNF5, MYRF and FAM111A. A minigene assay was performed for functional characterization of a splice site variant.

RESULTS

Seven patients, aged between three and 65 years, from five unrelated families were included. Novel pathogenic variants in MFRP (c.497C>T, c.899-3C>A, c.1180G>A), and PRSS56 (c.1202C>A), and a recurrent de novo variant in FAM111A (c.1706G>A) in a patient with Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 2, were identified. In addition, we report co-inheritance of MFRP-related nanophthalmos and ADAR-related Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

CONCLUSION

Nanophthalmos is a genetically heterogeneous condition, and the severity of ocular manifestations appears not to correlate with variants in a specific gene. However, retinal dystrophy is only observed in patients harbouring pathogenic MFRP variants. Furthermore, heterozygous carriers of MFRP and PRSS56 should be screened for the presence of high hyperopia. Identifying nanophthalmos as an isolated condition or as part of a syndrome has implications for counselling and can accelerate the interdisciplinary care of patients.

Abstract

PURPOSE

To (i) describe a series of patients with isolated or syndromic nanophthalmos with the underlying genetic causes, including novel pathogenic variants and their functional characterization and (ii) to study the association of retinal dystrophy in patients with MFRP variants, based on a detailed literature review of genotype-phenotype correlations.

METHODS

Patients with nanophthalmos and available family members received a comprehensive ophthalmological examination. Genetic analysis was based on whole-exome sequencing and variant calling in core genes including MFRP, BEST1, TMEM98, PRSS56, CRB1, GJA1, C1QTNF5, MYRF and FAM111A. A minigene assay was performed for functional characterization of a splice site variant.

RESULTS

Seven patients, aged between three and 65 years, from five unrelated families were included. Novel pathogenic variants in MFRP (c.497C>T, c.899-3C>A, c.1180G>A), and PRSS56 (c.1202C>A), and a recurrent de novo variant in FAM111A (c.1706G>A) in a patient with Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 2, were identified. In addition, we report co-inheritance of MFRP-related nanophthalmos and ADAR-related Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

CONCLUSION

Nanophthalmos is a genetically heterogeneous condition, and the severity of ocular manifestations appears not to correlate with variants in a specific gene. However, retinal dystrophy is only observed in patients harbouring pathogenic MFRP variants. Furthermore, heterozygous carriers of MFRP and PRSS56 should be screened for the presence of high hyperopia. Identifying nanophthalmos as an isolated condition or as part of a syndrome has implications for counselling and can accelerate the interdisciplinary care of patients.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Ophthalmology Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Molecular Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Ophthalmology
Language:English
Date:30 September 2020
Deposited On:26 Oct 2020 07:48
Last Modified:19 Feb 2021 08:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1755-375X
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.14615
PubMed ID:32996714

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