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Ciliary control of meiotic chromosomal pairing mechanics and germ cell morphogenesis


Mytils, Avishag; Kumar, Vineet; Tao, Qiu; Deis, Rachael; Levy, Karine; Masek, Markus; Eitan, Hagai; Nather, Farouq; Shawahny, Amal; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Roy, Sudipto; Elkouby, Yaniv M (2021). Ciliary control of meiotic chromosomal pairing mechanics and germ cell morphogenesis. bioRxiv 430249, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Abstract

Meiosis is a cellular program essential for the production of haploid gametes. A hallmark of meiosis is chromosomal pairing via synaptonemal complexes, and a major focus traditionally has been to understand synaptonemal complex formation. However, chromosomal pairing also depends on cytoplasmic counterparts that tether and rotate telomeres on the nuclear envelope, shuffling chromosomes and mechanically driving their homology searches1–8. Rotating telomeres slide on perinuclear microtubules and are ultimately pulled towards the centrosome7,9,10, forming the “zygotene chromosomal bouquet configuration”11. The bouquet is universally conserved and is essential for pairing and fertility1–8,12. However, despite its discovery in 190011, how the cytoplasmic counterparts of bouquet formation are mechanically regulated has remained enigmatic. Here, by studying zebrafish oogenesis, we report and comprehensively characterize the “zygotene cilium” - a previously unrecognized cilium in oocytes. We show that the zygotene cilium specifically connects to the bouquet centrosome and constitutes a cable system of the cytoplasmic bouquet machinery. Farther, zygotene cilia extend throughout the germline cyst, a conserved cellular organization of germ cells. By analyzing multiple ciliary mutants, we demonstrate that the zygotene cilium is essential for chromosomal pairing, germ cell morphogenesis, ovarian development and fertility. We further show that the zygotene cilium is conserved in both male meiosis in zebrafish, as well as in mammalian oogenesis. Our work uncovers the novel concept of a cilium as a critical player in meiosis and sheds new light on reproduction phenotypes in ciliopathies. Furthermore, most cells in metazoans are ciliated and exhibit specific nuclear dynamics. We propose a cellular paradigm that cilia can control chromosomal dynamics.

Abstract

Meiosis is a cellular program essential for the production of haploid gametes. A hallmark of meiosis is chromosomal pairing via synaptonemal complexes, and a major focus traditionally has been to understand synaptonemal complex formation. However, chromosomal pairing also depends on cytoplasmic counterparts that tether and rotate telomeres on the nuclear envelope, shuffling chromosomes and mechanically driving their homology searches1–8. Rotating telomeres slide on perinuclear microtubules and are ultimately pulled towards the centrosome7,9,10, forming the “zygotene chromosomal bouquet configuration”11. The bouquet is universally conserved and is essential for pairing and fertility1–8,12. However, despite its discovery in 190011, how the cytoplasmic counterparts of bouquet formation are mechanically regulated has remained enigmatic. Here, by studying zebrafish oogenesis, we report and comprehensively characterize the “zygotene cilium” - a previously unrecognized cilium in oocytes. We show that the zygotene cilium specifically connects to the bouquet centrosome and constitutes a cable system of the cytoplasmic bouquet machinery. Farther, zygotene cilia extend throughout the germline cyst, a conserved cellular organization of germ cells. By analyzing multiple ciliary mutants, we demonstrate that the zygotene cilium is essential for chromosomal pairing, germ cell morphogenesis, ovarian development and fertility. We further show that the zygotene cilium is conserved in both male meiosis in zebrafish, as well as in mammalian oogenesis. Our work uncovers the novel concept of a cilium as a critical player in meiosis and sheds new light on reproduction phenotypes in ciliopathies. Furthermore, most cells in metazoans are ciliated and exhibit specific nuclear dynamics. We propose a cellular paradigm that cilia can control chromosomal dynamics.

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Item Type:Working Paper
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:9 February 2021
Deposited On:06 Oct 2021 11:25
Last Modified:10 Apr 2024 07:16
Series Name:bioRxiv
ISSN:2164-7844
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.08.430249
Official URL:https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.08.430249v1.full.pdf
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English