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Genetic and environmental components of vertical growth in mono- and dizygotic twins up to 15-18 years of age


Hersberger-Zurfluh, Monika A; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Motro, Melih; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Will, Leslie A; Eliades, Theodore (2021). Genetic and environmental components of vertical growth in mono- and dizygotic twins up to 15-18 years of age. Angle Orthodontist, 91(3):384-390.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES
To determine the additive genetic and environmental contributions to the vertical growth of craniofacial structures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The sample consisted of 64 untreated monozygotic (44 male, 20 female) and 61 untreated dizygotic twins (32 male, 29 female). Lateral cephalograms taken at 15 and 18 years of age were traced to analyze the sella-nasion-nasal line angle (SN-NL), nasal line-mandibular line angle (ML-NL), sella-nasion-mandibular line angle (SN-ML), sella-nasion-sella-gnathion angle (Y-axis), posterior face height/anterior face height (PFH/AFH), and lower anterior face height/anterior face height (LAFH/AFH). The genetic and environmental components of variance were analyzed with structural equation modeling for multilevel mixed effects.
RESULTS
At 15 years of age, strong dominant genetic control was seen for NL-ML (81%), LAFH/AFH (73%), and Y-axis (57%), whereas strong additive genetic components were found for PFH/AFH (78%), SN-NL (58%), and SN-ML (57%). Unique environmental factors accounted for 18-42% of observed variance, with SN-NL being affected the most (42%). At 18 years of age, only LAFH/AFH (86%) was under strong dominant genetic control, whereas the remainder were under additive genetic influence. The sole exception was SN-NL, which changed from additive to unique environmental influence.
CONCLUSIONS
Either additive or dominant genetic components were found at 15 or 18 years of age for most vertical variables. Environmental factors accounted for about 10-40%, with SN-NL being mostly affected.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES
To determine the additive genetic and environmental contributions to the vertical growth of craniofacial structures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The sample consisted of 64 untreated monozygotic (44 male, 20 female) and 61 untreated dizygotic twins (32 male, 29 female). Lateral cephalograms taken at 15 and 18 years of age were traced to analyze the sella-nasion-nasal line angle (SN-NL), nasal line-mandibular line angle (ML-NL), sella-nasion-mandibular line angle (SN-ML), sella-nasion-sella-gnathion angle (Y-axis), posterior face height/anterior face height (PFH/AFH), and lower anterior face height/anterior face height (LAFH/AFH). The genetic and environmental components of variance were analyzed with structural equation modeling for multilevel mixed effects.
RESULTS
At 15 years of age, strong dominant genetic control was seen for NL-ML (81%), LAFH/AFH (73%), and Y-axis (57%), whereas strong additive genetic components were found for PFH/AFH (78%), SN-NL (58%), and SN-ML (57%). Unique environmental factors accounted for 18-42% of observed variance, with SN-NL being affected the most (42%). At 18 years of age, only LAFH/AFH (86%) was under strong dominant genetic control, whereas the remainder were under additive genetic influence. The sole exception was SN-NL, which changed from additive to unique environmental influence.
CONCLUSIONS
Either additive or dominant genetic components were found at 15 or 18 years of age for most vertical variables. Environmental factors accounted for about 10-40%, with SN-NL being mostly affected.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Orthodontics
Language:English
Date:1 May 2021
Deposited On:15 Feb 2022 06:11
Last Modified:27 May 2024 01:53
Publisher:E.H Angle Education and Research Foundation
ISSN:0003-3219
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2319/060520-515.1
PubMed ID:33523142
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English