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Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 27 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype


Hiatt, Susan M; Trajkova, Slavica; Sebastiano, Matteo Rossi; Partridge, E Christopher; et al; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Rauch, Anita (2023). Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 27 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype. American Journal of Human Genetics, 110(2):215-227.

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) result from highly penetrant variation in hundreds of different genes, some of which have not yet been identified. Using the MatchMaker Exchange, we assembled a cohort of 27 individuals with rare, protein-altering variation in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3, located on the X chromosome. Most (n = 24) individuals were males, 17 of which have a maternally inherited variant; six individuals (4 male, 2 female) harbor de novo variants. Overlapping features included developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and a specific facial gestalt in a subset of males. Variants in almost all individuals (n = 26) are missense, including six that recurrently affect two residues. Four unrelated probands were identified with inherited variation affecting Arg441, a site at which variation has been previously seen in NDD-affected siblings, and two individuals have de novo variation resulting in p.Arg1294Cys (c.3880C>T). All variants affect evolutionarily conserved sites, and most are predicted to damage protein structure or function. ZMYM3 is relatively intolerant to variation in the general population, is widely expressed across human tissues, and encodes a component of the KDM1A-RCOR1 chromatin-modifying complex. ChIP-seq experiments on one variant, p.Arg1274Trp, indicate dramatically reduced genomic occupancy, supporting a hypomorphic effect. While we are unable to perform statistical evaluations to definitively support a causative role for variation in ZMYM3, the totality of the evidence, including 27 affected individuals, recurrent variation at two codons, overlapping phenotypic features, protein-modeling data, evolutionary constraint, and experimentally confirmed functional effects strongly support ZMYM3 as an NDD-associated gene.

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) result from highly penetrant variation in hundreds of different genes, some of which have not yet been identified. Using the MatchMaker Exchange, we assembled a cohort of 27 individuals with rare, protein-altering variation in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3, located on the X chromosome. Most (n = 24) individuals were males, 17 of which have a maternally inherited variant; six individuals (4 male, 2 female) harbor de novo variants. Overlapping features included developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and a specific facial gestalt in a subset of males. Variants in almost all individuals (n = 26) are missense, including six that recurrently affect two residues. Four unrelated probands were identified with inherited variation affecting Arg441, a site at which variation has been previously seen in NDD-affected siblings, and two individuals have de novo variation resulting in p.Arg1294Cys (c.3880C>T). All variants affect evolutionarily conserved sites, and most are predicted to damage protein structure or function. ZMYM3 is relatively intolerant to variation in the general population, is widely expressed across human tissues, and encodes a component of the KDM1A-RCOR1 chromatin-modifying complex. ChIP-seq experiments on one variant, p.Arg1274Trp, indicate dramatically reduced genomic occupancy, supporting a hypomorphic effect. While we are unable to perform statistical evaluations to definitively support a causative role for variation in ZMYM3, the totality of the evidence, including 27 affected individuals, recurrent variation at two codons, overlapping phenotypic features, protein-modeling data, evolutionary constraint, and experimentally confirmed functional effects strongly support ZMYM3 as an NDD-associated gene.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:ZMYM3X-linked intellectual disability, neurodevelopmental disorder, transcriptional coregulators, chromatin modifiers
Language:English
Date:1 February 2023
Deposited On:03 Jan 2023 16:40
Last Modified:28 Apr 2024 01:42
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0002-9297
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.12.007
PubMed ID:36586412
Project Information:
  • : FunderSwiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
  • : Grant ID179547
  • : Project TitleGenetic causes and molecular mechanisms in severe intellectual disability
  • : Project Websitehttps://data.snf.ch/grants/grant/179547
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