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The Role of the Host Cytoskeleton in the Formation and Dynamics of Rotavirus Viroplasms


Vetter, Janine; Lee, Melissa; Eichwald, Catherine (2024). The Role of the Host Cytoskeleton in the Formation and Dynamics of Rotavirus Viroplasms. Viruses, 16(5):668.

Abstract

Rotavirus (RV) replicates within viroplasms, membraneless electron-dense globular cytosolic inclusions with liquid–liquid phase properties. In these structures occur the virus transcription, replication, and packaging of the virus genome in newly assembled double-layered particles. The viroplasms are composed of virus proteins (NSP2, NSP5, NSP4, VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP6), single- and double-stranded virus RNAs, and host components such as microtubules, perilipin-1, and chaperonins. The formation, coalescence, maintenance, and perinuclear localization of viroplasms rely on their association with the cytoskeleton. A stabilized microtubule network involving microtubules and kinesin Eg5 and dynein molecular motors is associated with NSP5, NSP2, and VP2, facilitating dynamic processes such as viroplasm coalescence and perinuclear localization. Key post-translation modifications, particularly phosphorylation events of RV proteins NSP5 and NSP2, play pivotal roles in orchestrating these interactions. Actin filaments also contribute, triggering the formation of the viroplasms through the association of soluble cytosolic VP4 with actin and the molecular motor myosin. This review explores the evolving understanding of RV replication, emphasizing the host requirements essential for viroplasm formation and highlighting their dynamic interplay within the host cell.

Abstract

Rotavirus (RV) replicates within viroplasms, membraneless electron-dense globular cytosolic inclusions with liquid–liquid phase properties. In these structures occur the virus transcription, replication, and packaging of the virus genome in newly assembled double-layered particles. The viroplasms are composed of virus proteins (NSP2, NSP5, NSP4, VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP6), single- and double-stranded virus RNAs, and host components such as microtubules, perilipin-1, and chaperonins. The formation, coalescence, maintenance, and perinuclear localization of viroplasms rely on their association with the cytoskeleton. A stabilized microtubule network involving microtubules and kinesin Eg5 and dynein molecular motors is associated with NSP5, NSP2, and VP2, facilitating dynamic processes such as viroplasm coalescence and perinuclear localization. Key post-translation modifications, particularly phosphorylation events of RV proteins NSP5 and NSP2, play pivotal roles in orchestrating these interactions. Actin filaments also contribute, triggering the formation of the viroplasms through the association of soluble cytosolic VP4 with actin and the molecular motor myosin. This review explores the evolving understanding of RV replication, emphasizing the host requirements essential for viroplasm formation and highlighting their dynamic interplay within the host cell.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:rotavirus; viroplasm; cytoskeleton; microtubule; actin; molecular motors; lipid droplets; NSP5; NSP2; VP2; VP4
Language:English
Date:2024
Deposited On:02 May 2024 08:37
Last Modified:30 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1999-4915
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050668
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)