In the context of a serosurvey conducted on the Anaplasma marginale prevalence in Swiss cattle, we suspected that a serological cross-reactivity between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum might exist. In the present study we demonstrate that cattle, sheep and horses experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum not only develop antibodies to A. phagocytophilum (detected by immunofluorescent-antibody assay) but also to A. marginale (detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Conversely, calves experimentally infected with A. marginale also developed antibodies to A. phagocytophilum using the same serological tests. The identity of 63% determined in silico within a 209-amino-acid sequence of major surface protein 5 of an isolate of A. marginale and one of A. phagocytophilum supported the observed immunological cross-reactivity. These observations have important consequences for the serotesting of both, A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infection of several animal species. In view of these new findings, tests that have been considered specific for either infection must be interpreted carefully.