Intraspecific and interspecific variation in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar region of the vertebral column of Dasypodidae were examined in a phylogenetic framework. The number of vertebrae for each region were recorded for 86 specimens and metric data for each vertebra (centrum length, high, and width) were recorded for 72 specimens, including eight of the nine living genera. The number of vertebrae and degree of fusion between them were used to define four characters which were plotted on two alternative phylogenies of Dasypodidae. The ratio between centrum height and width is similar across all taxa analyzed except for Chlamyphorus, which exhibits a deviation in the last two lumbars. Tolypeutes matacus is unique among the taxa examined in having a second co-osified bone called postcervical bone, which is a fusion of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae. The thoraco-lumbar numbers of dasypodids are reduced when compared with other xenarthrans and are more diverse than those of some other mammalian clades of similar geological age and higher ecomorphological diversity. Changes in size are somewhat coupled with changes in the number of body segments. Independent of the phylogenetic framework taken, changes in size are accompanied with small changes in numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae within each genus. There are functional and phylogenetic correlates for changes in number of thoraco-lumbar vertebrae in dasypodids.