This paper is about the fitting or inversion of dynamic causal models (DCMs) of fMRI time series. It tries to establish the validity of stochastic DCMs that accommodate random fluctuations in hidden neuronal and physiological states. We compare and contrast deterministic and stochastic DCMs, which do and do not ignore random fluctuations or noise on hidden states. We then compare stochastic DCMs, which do and do not ignore conditional dependence between hidden states and model parameters (generalised filtering and dynamic expectation maximisation, respectively). We first characterise state-noise by comparing the log evidence of models with different a priori assumptions about its amplitude, form and smoothness. Face validity of the inversion scheme is then established using data simulated with and without state-noise to ensure that DCM can identify the parameters and model that generated the data. Finally, we address construct validity using real data from an fMRI study of internet addiction. Our analyses suggest the following. (i) The inversion of stochastic causal models is feasible, given typical fMRI data. (ii) State-noise has nontrivial amplitude and smoothness. (iii) Stochastic DCM has face validity, in the sense that Bayesian model comparison can distinguish between data that have been generated with high and low levels of physiological noise and model inversion provides veridical estimates of effective connectivity. (iv) Relaxing conditional independence assumptions can have greater construct validity, in terms of revealing group differences not disclosed by variational schemes. Finally, we note that the ability to model endogenous or random fluctuations on hidden neuronal (and physiological) states provides a new and possibly more plausible perspective on how regionally specific signals in fMRI are generated.